Glossary & Terminologies

Acoustics guidelines and standards
Noise control guidelines and standards from ANSI, ASHRAE, ASA, CEN, or other industry best practice guidance
Annual sunlight exposure:
It refers to how much of space receives too much direct sunlight. Typically, it measures the percentage of floor area that receives at least 1000 lux from sunlight for minimum 250 hours a year.
Attention restoration theory (ART)
Originally proposed by Kaplan (1989, 1995), it suggests that mental fatigue and concentration can be improved by time spent in, or looking at nature. The capacity of the brain to focus on a specific stimulus or task is limited and results in “directed attention fatigue.” ART proposes that exposure to natural environments encourages more effortless brain function, thereby allowing it to recover and replenish its directed attention capacity.
Auditory stimulation
Music and other sounds such as sound of nature that stimulate human auditory sense
Bike Score
Bike Score measures whether an area is good for biking on a scale from 1 to 100. For a given location, a Bike Score is calculated by measuring bike infrastructure (lanes, trails, etc.), hills, destinations and road connectivity, and the number of bike commuters.
Carbon filter
Carbon filtering is a method of filtering that uses a bed of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, using chemical adsorption. Each particle/granule of carbon provides a large surface area/pore structure, allowing contaminants the maximum possible exposure to the active sites within the filter media.
Choice architecture
Coined by Thaler and Sunstein (2008), it is referred to the practice of influencing choice by changing the manner in which options are presented to people.
Cleanliness and maintenance space
Cleanliness and hygiene that is equivalent to 'Level 2 Ordinary Tidiness' in the APPA (Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers) custodial guideline
Collaboration space
A space for group tasks to achieve a common goal between the members. It may include meeting rooms, conference rooms, or small shared spaces for collaborative activities between workstations
Community-supported agriculture (CSA)
It is a system that connects the producer and consumers within the food system more closely by allowing the consumer to subscribe to the harvest of a certain farm or group of farms. When becoming a member of a CSA, people purchase a “share” of vegetables from a regional farmer. Weekly or bi-weekly, the farmer will deliver that share of produce to a convenient drop-off location in the neighborhood of a member.
Capacity of a space to change in function through the conversion of space
Color rendering index
It is a measure of a light source's ability to show colors realistically or naturally compared to sunlight. It is a scale from 1 to 100 and the higher the number means the better the color rendering ability.
A legal term used to describe the rights that creators have over their literary and artistic works; works range from books, music, paintings, sculpture, and films, to computer programs, databases, advertisements, maps and technical drawings
Doodle spaces
A space for idea generation through brainstorming, charrette, doodling, design improvisation, model making, role playing, etc.
Ergonomic guidelines and standards
Ergonomic guidelines and standards that established from BIFMA, ANSI/HFES, OSHA, or other industry best practice guidance
Capacity of a space to accommodate growth with expansion
Evolutionary psychology
It is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments.
Fitness space
A designated separate space or a space with equipment placed at workstations for fitness
It includes expandability, versatility, and convertibility of spaces
Flow of spaces
Appropriate adjacency layout supporting the flow of work in knowledge management
Focus space
A space for individual tasks requiring concentration without interruptions from others. It may include individual workstations, private offices, or small enclosed rooms to conduct individual tasks for mobile workers
Formal meeting space
A space for meetings that is typically closed and equipped with appropriate low- and/or high-tech tools to document, display, and share ideas
Green cleaning materials and products
The cleaning materials and products that produce no harmful chemicals and are certified by a third party such as Green Seal, Environmental Choice CCD, or other industry best practice guidance.
Green Purchasing
Green Purchasing or Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) refers to the procurement of products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose.
A tangible object such as a smart phone, furniture, or packaged software, but downloadable software, music and film are also goods
Health issues caused by the built environment, which are critical to human health and performance
HEPA filter
High efficiency particulate air (HEPA), originally called high-efficiency particulate absorber but also sometimes called high-efficiency particulate arresting or high-efficiency particulate arrestance, is a type of air filter. Filters meeting the HEPA standard have many applications, including use in medical facilities, automobiles, aircraft and homes. The filter must satisfy certain standards of efficiency such as those set by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). To qualify as HEPA by US government standards, an air filter must remove 99.97% of particles that have a size of 0.3 µm.
High-tech tools
Electronic tools for display of ideas and communication, group sharing and creation of information, and effective decision-making by using multimedia, visualization systems, information sharing systems, telecommunications technology, etc.
Home-like setting
A space with the types of furniture and furnishings typically used in residences, residential spaces such as living room, den, porch, or fireplace, home-like comfortable ambience, and having pets around.
Impromptu meeting spaces
A meeting space that is typically created in the hallways, corners, or other paths of traffic to increase chances of serendipitous or impromptu meetings with or without tools for doodling
Indoor air quality standards
Indoor air quality standards from ASHRAE or other industry best practice guidance
Industrial design
The ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article, a design may consist of three-dimensional features, such as the shape or surface of an article, or of two-dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or color
Informal meeting space
A space for informal meetings where low- and/or high-tech tools for doodling are provided
The design, invention, development and/or implementation of new or altered products, services, processes, systems, organizational structures, or business models for the purpose of creating new value for customers and financial returns for the firm
Intellectual property
Creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce; includes copyright, patent, trademark, and industrial design
IT resources
Information technology that enables group work, processes and activities in both physical and virtual group work. Information technology is a computer system for storing, retrieving, and sending electronic information
Key ergonomic principles
These principles include versatility, flexibility, fit, postural change, and maintainability
Kinetic degradation fluxion (KDF) filter
KDF is a high-purity copper-zinc formulation that uses a basic chemical process known as redox (oxidation/reduction) to remove chlorine, lead, mercury, iron, and hydrogen sulfide from water supplies.
Light reflectance value
It is measured in the visible and usable light and represents the amount of light which is reflected or absorbed by a certain color. It is measured in percentages. Absolute black means the lowest which is 0% and purest white is the highest, which would be 100%.
Level 2 Ordinary Tidiness
All surfaces are clean and there is no build up in corners or along walls, but there may possibly be two days' worth of dust, dirt, stains, or streaks, and noticeable marks, dust, smudges, and fingerprints upon close examination. In addition, trash containers hold only daily waste, and are clean and odor-free
Low-tech tools
Manual tools for display of ideas and communication, and group sharing and creation of information by using writing surfaces, white boards, pin-ups, etc.
Marketing innovation
The implementation of a new marketing concept or strategy that differs significantly from your company's existing marketing methods and which has not been used before by your company
MERV 13 media filter
Minimum efficiency reporting value, commonly known as MERV rating, is a measurement scale designed in 1987 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) to rate the effectiveness of air filters. The scale represents a quantum leap in the precision and accuracy of air-cleaner ratings and allows for improved health, reduced cost and energy efficiency in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) design.
Natural elements
Elements of nature including daylight, views of nature, interior vegetation /plants, water features, etc.
Noise Isolation Class (NIC)
It is a method for rating a partition's ability to block airborne noise transfer. It is a single number (like STC) expressing the actual degree of sound control between two adjoining areas measured at various frequency levels on site in a building and is commonly referred to as a "Field Test".
Non-hierarchical space
A space that blurs the traditional power structure at work through different space allocation or layout from the traditional planning
Nudge strategy
Nudge is a concept in behavioral science which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to try to achieve non-forced compliance to influence the motives, incentives and decision making of groups and individuals.
Olfactory stimulation
Smell of beverage, food, aroma, scent, etc. that stimulates human olfactory sense
Organizational innovation
A new organizational method in business practices including knowledge management, workplace organization or external relations that has not been previously used by the company.
Outdoor recharge space
An outdoor space intended for a short mental break to recharge or build camaraderie while doing activities not related to work. It may include outdoor lounge areas, outdoor gardens, balconies, rooftop gardens, etc.
An exclusive right granted for an invention, provides the patent owner with the right to decide how - or whether - the invention can be used by others and in exchange for this right, the patent owner makes technical information about the invention publicly available in the published patent document
Persistent bio-accumulative and toxic chemicals
PBTs are a class of compounds that have high resistance to degradation from abiotic and biotic factors, high mobility in the environment and high toxicity. Because of these factors PBTs have been observed to have a high order of bioaccumulation and biomagnification, very long retention times in various media, and widespread distribution across the globe. Majority of PBTs in the environment are either created through industry or are unintentional byproducts.
Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO)
PCO is an advanced process by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs), bacteria, mold and fungus is destroyed by incorporating photon and ultraviolet (UV) energy activating a catalyst creating photocatalytic oxidation (PCO).
Play space
Either a designated separate space or a space with features integrated to the space that is built for intentional physical or virtual activities or games such as mini basketball game equipment along a wall, dart boards, Ping-Pong, billiards, karaoke, foosball, air hockey, or computer/ video games.
Primary work spaces
Spaces to focus, collaborate, and socialize as these are the main activities necessary for creation of new knowledge in knowledge workplace
Process innovation
The implementation of a new or significantly improved production process, distribution method, or support activity for your goods or services
Product innovation
The market introduction of a new or significantly improved good or service with respect to its capabilities, user friendliness, components, or sub-systems
Recharge space
Either a separate space or a space with features integrated to work spaces or workstations that is intended for a short mental break to recharge or build camaraderie while doing activities not related to work
Relaxing environment
A space with features reducing stress and increasing relaxation, which is critical to producing creative and innovative ideas
Reverse osmosis (RO) system
RO is a process in which dissolved inorganic solids (such as salts) are removed from a solution (such as water). This is accomplished by water pressure pushing the tap water through a semipermeable membrane.
An intangible good, such as retailing, insurance, educational courses, air travel, consulting, etc.
Social hangout space
A space for social networking or interactions in such spaces as caf'/cafeteria, break rooms, lounges, etc.
Socialization space
A space for social networks and interactions that build camaraderie and collegiality. It may include hallway impromptu meeting spaces, lounge areas, cafeteria, etc.
Solitude space
A space for personal lounging, break, or meditation
Stimulating art/design/craftwork
Inspiring art/ design/ craft work that is significantly present and integral to the spaces for creativity and innovation
Thermal comfort
The thermal condition that is comfortable to human body
Thermal comfort guidelines and standards
Thermal comfort guidelines and standards from ASHRAE, ISO, EN, or other industry best practice guidance
A sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI)
UVGI is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
Unconventional functions and shapes and dramatic use of interior architectural & interior design elements
Interior elements featuring atypical or unusual functions, shapes, forms, and finishes in doors, stairs, ramps, walls, ceilings, floors, furniture, lighting, etc.
Unique/Fun atmosphere
Art, design, and spatial features that create neural and psychological stimulation and relaxation that are critical to producing creative and innovation ideas
Usable space
A fully enclosed space in square feet available for tenant personnel, furnishings, fixtures and equipment (FF&E), includes the aisles and walkways within tenant spaces for internal circulation on multi-tenant floors or, on single tenant floors, hallways and restrooms exclusively serving their floor(s).
Capacity of a space to accommodate several different activities as a multifunctional space
Visual access
Being able to visually see other people by using such design strategies as lower and/or transparent partitions in the work areas, vertical openness between floors using stairs & atriums, intersecting circulation paths, etc.
Visual comfort
Light levels and sources that provide the comfort in visibility
Visual stimulation
Accentuated color including accentuated monochrome, color contrast, patterns, etc. that stimulates human visual sense
Visual transmittance (VT)
It is the amount of light in the visible portion of the spectrum that passes through a glazing material. A higher VT means there is more daylight in a space
Volatile organic compound (VOC)
VOCs are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air. VOCs are a large group of chemicals that are found in many building and interior products. Once these chemicals are in indoor environments, they are released or “off-gas” into the indoor air occupants breathe.
Walk Score
It measures the walkability of any address on a scale from 0 to 100, analyzing hundreds of walking routes to nearby amenities. Points are awarded based on the distance to amenities in each category. Amenities within a 5 minute walk (.25 miles) are given maximum points. A decay function is used to give points to more distant amenities, with no points given after a 30 minute walk. Walk Score also measures pedestrian friendliness by analyzing population density and road metrics such as block length and intersection density.
Window-to-wall ratio
The measure of the percentage area determined by dividing the building's total glazed area by its exterior envelope wall area. To calculate it, divide the total glazing (window) area by the total exterior wall area.
Whimsical and fun decorative objects
Fun signage, toys, ornaments, etc. incorporated into the workspace to promote inspiration and idea generation.